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(Syllabus) Indian Economics - Optional

(Syllabus) Indian Economics - Optional

Economics (Optional) Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

General Economics

1) Micro-economics : (a) Production : Agents of Production; Costs and Supply; Isoquants (b) Consumption and Demand; Elasticity concept (c) Market Structure and concepts of equilibrium; (d) Determination of prices; (e) Components and Theories of Distribution (f) Elementary concepts of Welfare economics : Pareto-optimality-Private and social products-consumers surplus.
2) Macro-economics : (a) National Income concepts; (b) Determinants of National Income Employment (c) Determinants of consumption, savings and Investment (d) Rate of Interest and its determination (e) Interest and profit.
3) Money, Banking and Public Finance : (a) Concepts of Money and measures of money supply; velocity of money (b) Banks and credit creation; Banks and portfolio management. (c) Central Bank and control over money supply (d) Determination of the price level. (e) Inflation, its causes and remedies. (f) Public, Finance-Budgets-Taxes and non-tax revenues-Types of Budget deficits.
4) International Economics : (a) Theories of International Trade-comparative costs-Heckscher-Ohlin-Gains from Trade-Terms of Trade. (b) Free Trade and Protection. (c) Balance of Payments accounts and Adjustment. (d) Exchange rate under free exchange markets. (e) Evolution of the International Monetary System and World Trading order-Gold Standard-the Brettonwoods system. IMF and the World Bank and their associates. Floating rates-GATT and WTO
(5) Growth and Development : (a) Meaning and measurement of growth; Growth, distribution and Welfare; (b) Characteristics of underdevelopment; (c) Stages of Development; (d) Sources of growth-capital, Human capital, population, productivity, Trade and aid, non-economic factors; growth Strategies, (e) Planning in a mixed economy-Indicative planning-Planning and growth.
(6) Economic Statistics : Types of averages-measures of dispersion-correlation-Index numbers; types, uses and limitations.


Indian Economics
1. Main features; Geographic size-Endowment of natural resources, Population; size, composition quality and growth trend-Occupational distribution-Effects of British Rule with reference to Drain theory and Laissez Faire policy.
2. Major problems, their dimensions, nature and broad causes; Mass poverty-Unemployment and its types-Economics effects of population pressure-Inequality and types thereof-Low productivity and low per capita income, Rural-urban disparities-Foreign Trade and payments imbalances. Balance of Payments and External Debt- Inflation, and parallel economy and its effects-Fiscal deficit.
3. Growth in income and employment since Independence-Rate, Pattern, Sectoral trends-Distributional Changes-Regional disparities.
4. Economic Planning in India : Major controversies on planning in India-Alternative strategies-goals and achievements, shortfalls of different plans-planning and the Market.
5. Broad Fiscal, monetary, industrial trade and agricultural policies-objectives, rationale, constraints and effects.

Economics (Optional) Syllabus for Main Examination

1. Ricardian, Marshallian and Walrasain approaches to price determination. Types of Markets and price determination. Criteria or Welfare improvement. Alternate theories of distribution.
2. Functions of money-Measurement of price level changes-Money and real balances-Monetary standards-High-powered money and the Quantity theory of money, its variants and critiques thereof-Demand for and supply of money-The money multiplier. Theories of determination of interest rate-Interest and prices-Theories of inflation and control of inflation.
3. Full employment and Says' Law-underemployment equilibrium-Keynes' Theory of employment (and income) determination-Critiques of Keynesian Theory.
4. The modern monetary system-Banks, non-bank financial intermediaries, Discount House, and Central Bank. Structure of Money and financial markets and control. Money market instruments, bills and bonds. Real and nominal interest rates. Goals and instruments of monetary management in closed and open economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury. Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.
5. Public finance and its role in market economy in stabilisation, supply stability, allocative efficiency, distribution and development. Sources of revenue-Forms of Taxes and subsidies, their incidence and effects; Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects, and limits to borrowing. Types of budget deficits-Public expenditure and its effects.
6. International Economics
(i) Old and New theories of International Trade.
a) Comparative advantage, Terms of trade and offer curve.
b) Product cycle and Strategic trade theories.
c) "Trade as an engine of growth" and theories of underdevelopment in an open economy.
(ii) Forms of protection.
(iii) Balance of Payments Adjustments Alternative Approaches.
a) Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates.
b) Theories of policy mix.
c) Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility.
d) Floating Rates and their implications for developing countries; Currency Boards.
(iv) (a) IMF and the World Bank.
(b) W.T.O.
(c) Trade Blocks and monetary unions.
7. Growth and development.
(i) Theories of growth : Classical and neo-classical theories; The Harrod model; economic development under surplus Labour; wage-goods as a constraint on growth; relative importance of physical and human capitals in growth; innovations and development; Productivity, its growth and source of changes thereof. Factors determining savings to income ratio and the capital-out put ratio.
(ii) Main features of growth : Changes in Sectoral compositions of income; Changes in occupational distribution; changes in income distribution; changes in consumption levels and patterns; changes in savings and investment and in pattern of investment. Case for and against industralization. Significance of agriculture in developing countries.
(iii) Relation between state, planning and growth, Changing roles of market and plans in growth economic policy and growth.
(iv) Role of foreign capital and technology in growth. The significance of multi-nationals.
(v) Welfare indicators and measures of growth-Human development indices-The basic needs approach.
(vi) Concept of sustainable development; convergence of levels of living of developed and developing countries; meaning of self-reliance in growth and development.


I. Evolution of the Indian Economy till independence. The Colonial Heritage : Land System & Agriculture, Taxes, Money and credit, Trade, Exchange Rate, the "Drain of Wealth controversy" of late 19th Century. Randade's critique of Laissez-Faire; Swadeshi movement; Gandhi and Hind Swaraj.
II. Indian Economics in Post-Independent Era-Contributions of Vakil, Gadgil and Rao. National and percapita Income; Patterns, Trends, Aggregate and sectoral-composition and changes therein. Broad factors determining National Income and its distribution; Measures of poverty. Trends in below poverty-line proportion.
III. Employment : Factors determining employment in short and long periods. Role of capital, wage-goods, wage-rate and technology. Measures of unemployment. Relation between income, poverty and employment, and issues of distribution and social justice.
Agriculture-Institutional set-up of land system size of agricultre holdings and efficiency-Green Revolution and technological changes-Agricultural prices and terms of trade-Role of public distribution and farm-subsidies on agricultural prices and production. Employment and poverty in agriculture-Rural wages-employment schemes-growth experience-land reforms. Regional disparities in agricultural growth. Role of Agriculture in export.
IV. Industry : Industrial system of India : Trends in Composition and growth. Role of public and private sectors, Role of small and cottage industries. Indian industrial Strategy-Capital versus consumer goods, wage-goods versus luxuries, capital-intensive versus labour-intensive techniques, import-substituting versus export promotion. Sickness and high-cost Industrial policies and their effects. Recent moves for liberalisation and their effects on Indian industry.
V. Money and banking : The monetary institutions of India: Factors determining demand for and supply of money. Sources of Reserve money-money multiplier-Techniques of money supply regulation under open economy. Functioning of money market in India. Budget deficit and money supply. Issues in Reform of Monetary and Banking Systems.
VI. Index numbers of price levels-Course of Price level in post-Independence period-sources and causes of inflation-role of monetary and supply factors in price level determination-policies towards control of inflation. Effects of inflation under open economy.
VII. Trade, balance of payments and exchange : Foreign trade of India; composition and direction shifts in trade policy from import substituion to export promotion. Impact of liberalisation on pattern of trade. India's external Borrowings-the Debt problem. Exchange rate of the rupee; Devaluations, depreciations and their effects on balance of payments-Gold imports and Gold policy-convertibility on current and capital accounts-rupee in an open economy. Integration of Indian economy with world economy-India and the WTO.
VIII. Public Finance and Fiscal Policy : Characteristics of and trends in India's Public Finance-Role of Taxes, (direct and indirect) and subsidies-Fiscal and monetary deficits-public expenditures and their significance-Public Finance and Inflation-Limiting Government's debt-Recent fiscal policies and their effects.
IX. Economic Planning in India-Trends in Savings and investment-Trends in Savings to Income and capital-output ratios-Productivity, its sources, growth and trends-growth versus distribution-Transition from Central Planning to indicative planning-relation between Market and Plan-strategies for Growth, social justice and Plans. Planning and increasing the growth rate.

(Syllabus) Physics- Optional

(Syllabus) Physics - Optional

Physics (Optional) Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

1. Mechanics and Waves
Dimensional analysis. Newton's laws of motion and applications, variable mass systems, projectiles. Rotational dynamics-kinetic energy, angular momentum, theorems of moment of intertia and calculations in simple cases. Conservative forces, frictional forces. Gravitaional potential and intensity due to spherical objects. Central forces, Kepler's problem, escape velocity and artificial satellites (including GPS). Streamline motion, viscosity, Poiseuille's equation. Applications of Bernoulli's equation and Stokes' law.
Special relativity and Lorentz transformation-length contraction, time dilation, mass-energy relation.
Simple harmonic motion, Lissajous figures. Damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats, Phase and group velocities. Stationary waves, vibration of strings and air columns, longitudinal waves in solids. Doppler effect. Ultrasonics and applications.
2. Geometrical and Physical Optics.
Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial optics- thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations. Simple optical instruments-magnifier, eyepieces, telescopes and microscopes.
Huygens' principle-reflection and refraction of waves. Interference of light-Young's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction-half-period zones and zone plate. Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically polarised light. Double refraction, quarter-waves plates and half-wave plates. Polarizing sheets. Optical activity and applications. Rayleigh scattering and applications.
Elements of fibre optics-attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion. Lasers, characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams and applciations.
3. Heat and Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and temperature. The zeroth law of thermodynamics. Heat and the first law of thermodynamics. Efficiency of Carnot engines. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory and the equation of state of an ideal gas. Mean free path, distribution of molecular speeds and energies. Trasport phenomena. Andrew's experiements-van der Waals equation and applications. Joule-Kelvin effect and applications. Brownian motion. Thermodynamic potentials-Maxwell relations. Phase transitions. Kirchhoff's laws. Black-body radiation-Stefan-Boltzmann law, spectral radiancy, Wien displacement law, application to the cosmic microwave background radiation, Planck radiation law.
4. Electricity and Magnetism
Electric charge, Coulomb's law, electric field, Gauss' law. Electric potential, van de Graff accelerator. Capacitors, dielectrics and polarization. Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's first and second rules, resistors in series and parallel, applications to two-loop circuits. Magnietic field-Gauss'law for magnetism, atomic and nuclear magnetism, magnetic susceptibility, classification of magnetic materials. Cirulating charges, cyclotron, synchrotron. Hall effect. Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law of induction., Lenz's law. Inductance. Alternating current circuits-RC, LR, single-loop LRC circuits, impedance, resonance, power in AC circuits. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations (MKS units), electromagnetic waves, energy transport and Poynting vector.
5. Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Photoelectric effect, Einstein's photon theory. Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom. Stern-Gerlach experiment, quantisation of angular momentum, electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle and applications. Zeeman effect. X-ray spectrum, Bragg's law, Bohr's theory of the Mosley plot. Compton effect, Compton wavelength. Wave nature of matter, de Broglie wavelength, wave-particle duality. Heisenberg's uncertainty relationships. Schroedinger's equation-eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of (i) particle in a box, (ii) simple harmonic oscillator and (iii) hydrogen atom. Potential step and barrier penetration. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Binding energy of nuclei, nuclear fission and fusion. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions.
6. Electronics
Diodes in half-waves and full-wave rectification, qualitative ideas of semiconductors, p type and n type semiconductors, junction diode, Zener diode, transistors, binary numbers, Logic gates and truth tables, Elements of microprocessors and computers. 

Physics (Optional) Syllabus for Main Examination


1. Classical Mechanics
(a) Particle dynamics
Centre of mass and laboratory coordinates, conservation of linear and angular momentum. The rocket equation. Rutherford scattering, Galilean transformation, intertial and non-inertial frames, rotating frames, centrifugal and Coriolis forces, Foucault pendulum.
(b) System of particles
Constraints, degrees of freedom, generalised coordinates and momenta. Lagrange's equation and applications to linear harmonic oscillator, simple pendulum and central force problems. Cyclic coordinates, Hamilitonian Lagrange's equation from Hamilton's principle.
(c) Rigid body dynamics
Eulerian angles, inertia tensor, principal moments of inertia. Euler's equation of motion of a rigid body, force-free motion of a rigid body. Gyroscope.
2. Special Relativity, Waves & Geometrical Optics
(a) Special Relativity
Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications. Lorentz transformations-length contraction, time dilation, addition of velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process. Minkowski diagram, four dimensional momentum vector. Covariance of equations of physics.
(b) Waves
Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats. Stationary waves in a string. Pulses and wave packets. Phase and group velocities. Reflection and Refraction from Huygens' principle.
(c) Geometrical Optics
Laws of relfection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial optic-thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.
3. Physical Optics
(a) Interference
Interference of light-Young's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer. Holography and simple applications.
(b) Diffraction
Fraunhofer diffraction-single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction: - half-period zones and zones plates. Fresnel integrals. Application of Cornu's spiral to the analysis of diffraction at a straight edge and by a long narrow slit. Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern.
(c) Polarisation and Modern Optics
Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarised light. Double refraction, quarter wave plate. Optical activity. Principles of fibre optics attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion, single mode fibres. Lasers-Einstein A and B coefficients. Ruby and He-Ne lasers. Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams. Three-level scheme for laser operation.

4. Electricity and Magnetism
(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
Laplace ad Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications. Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential. Method of images and its applications. Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field. Dielectrics, polarisation. Solutions to bounary-value problems-conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field. Magentic shell, uniformly magnetised sphere. Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
(b) Current Electricity
Kirchhoff's laws and their applications. Biot-Savart law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Lenz' law. Self-and mutual-inductances. Mean and rms values in AC circuits. LR CR and LCR circuits- series and parallel resonance. Quality factor. Principal of transformer.
5. Electromagnetic Theory & Black Body Radiation
(a) Electromagnetic Theory
Displacement current and Maxwell's equatons. Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem. Vector and scalar potentials. Gauge invariance, Lorentz and Coulomb gauges. Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell's equations. Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics. Fresnel's relations. Normal and anomalous dispersion. Rayleigh scattering.
(b) Blackbody radiation
Balckbody radiation and Planck radiation law- Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans law. Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time,. Planck temperature and Planck energy.
6. Thermal and Statistical Physics
(a) Thremodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy. Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy change. Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs' phase rule and chemical potential. van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants. Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems. Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and Debye's theories of specific heat of solids. Maxwell relations and applications. Clausius- Clapeyron equation. Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.
(b) Statistical Physics
Saha ionization formula. Bose-Einstein condenssation. Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal Fermi gas, Chandrasekhar limit, elementary ideas about neutron stars and pulsars. Brownian motion as a random walk, diffusion process. Concept of negative temperatures.


1. Quantum Mechanics I
Wave-particle dualitiy. Schroedinger equation and expectation values. Uncertainty principle. Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation free particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator. Reflection and transmission by a potential step and by a rectangular barrier. Use of WKB formula for the life-time calcuation in the alpha-decay problem.
2. Quantum Mechanics II & Atomic Physics
(a) Quantum Mechanics II
Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals. The angular meomentum problem. The hydrogen atom. The spin half problem and properties of Pauli spin matrices.
(b) Atomic Physics
Stern-Gerlack experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom. L-S coupling, J-J coupling. Spectroscopic notation of atomic states. Zeeman effect. Frank-Condon principle and applications.
3. Molecular Physics
Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules. Raman effect and molecular structure. Laser Raman spectroscopy Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy Fluorescence and Phosphorescence. Elementary theory and applications of NMR. Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.

4. Nuclear Physics
Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment. Semi-empirical mass formula and applications. Mass parabolas. Ground state of a deuteron magnetic moment and non-central forces. Meson theory of nuclear forces. Salient features of nuclear forces. Shell model of the nucleus-success and limitations. Violation of parity in beta decay. Gamma decay and internal conversion. Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy. Q-value of nuclear reactions. Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars. Nuclear reactors.
5. Particle Physics & Solid State Physics
(a) Particle Physics
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions. Conservation laws. Quark structure of hadrons. Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions. Elementary ideas about Unification of Forces. Physics of neutrinos.
(b) Solid State Physics
Cubic crystal structure. Band theory of solids- conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications. Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.
6. Electronics
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors-p-n-p and n-p-n transistors.Amplifiers and oscillators. Op-amps. FET, JFET and MOSFET. Digital electronics-Boolean identities, De Morgan's laws, Logic gates and truth tables., Simple logic circuits. Thermistors, solar cells. Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.


(Syllabus) Sociology - Optional

(Syllabus) Sociology- Optional

Sociology Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

Unit I :

Basic Concepts :

Society, community, association, institution. Culture-culture change, diffusion, Cultural-tag, Cultural relativism, ethnocentrism, acculturation.
Social Groups-primary, secondary and reference groups.
Social structure, social system, social action.
Status and role, role conflict, role set.
Norms and values-conformity and deviance.
Law and customs.
Socio-cultural processes :
socialisation, assimilation, integration, cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation, Social distance, relative deprivation.

Unit II :

Marriage, Family and Kinship :

Marriage : types and norms, marriage as contract, and as a sacrament.
Family : types, functions and changes.
Kinships : terms and usages, rules of residence, descent, inheritance.

Unit III :

Social Stratification :

Forms and functions; Caste and Class. Jajmani system, purity and pollution, dominant caste, sanskritisation.

Unit IV :

Types of Society :

Tribal, agrarian, industrial and post-industrial.

Unit V :

Economy and Society :

Man, nature and social production, economic systems of simple and complex societies, non-economic determinants of economic behaviour, market (free) economy and controlled (planned) economy.

Unit VI :

Industrial and Urban Society :

Rural-Urban Continuum, urban growth and urbanisation-town, city and metropolis; basic features of industrial society; impact of automation on society; industrialisation and environment.

Unit VII :

Social Demography :

Population size, growth, composition, and distribution in India; components of population growth-births, deaths and migration; causes and consequences of population growth; population and social development; population policy.

Unit VIII :

Political Processes :

Power, authority and legitimacy; political socialisation; political modernisation, pressure groups; caste and politics.

Unit IX :

Weaker Sections-and Minorities :

Social justice-equal opportunity and special opportunity; protective discrimination; constitutional safeguards.

Unit X :

Social Change :
Theories of change; factors of change; science, technology and change. Social movements-Peasant Movement, Women's Movement, Backward Caste Movement, Dalit Movement.

Sociology Syllabus for Main Examination


General Sociology/Foundations of Sociology/Fundamentals of Sociology

1. Sociology-The Discipline :
Sociology as a science and as an interpretative discipline; impact of industrial and French Revolution on the emergence of sociology; sociology and its relationship with history, economics, political science, psychology and anthropology.

2. Scientific Study of Social Phenomena :
Problem of objectivity and value neutrality; issue of measurement in social science; elements of scientific method-concepts, theory and fact, hypothesis; research designs-descriptive, exploratory and experimental

3. Techniques of data collection and analysis :
Participant and quasi-participant observation; interview, questionnaire and schedule case study, sampling-size, reliability and validity, scaling techniques-social distance and Likert scale.

4. Pioneering contributions to Sociology:
a) Karl Marx : Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation and class struggle.
b) Emile Durkheim : Division of labour, social fact, religion and society.
c) Max Weber : Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
d) Talcott Parsons : Social system, pattern variables.
e) Robert K. Merton : Latent and manifest functions, anomie, conformity and deviance, reference groups.

5. Marriage and Family :
Types and forms of marriage; family-structure and function; personality and socialization; Social control; family, lineage, descent and property; changing structure of family marriage and sex roles in modern society; divorce and its implications; gender issues; role conflicts.

6. Social Stratification :
Concepts-hierarchy, inequality and stratification; theories of stratification-Marx, Davis and Moore and Melvin Tumin's critique; forms and functions; class-different conceptions of class; class-in-itself and class-for-itself; caste and class; caste as a class.

7. Social Mobility :
Types of mobility-open and closed models; intra-and inter-generational mobility; vertical and horizontal mobility; social mobility and social change.

8. Economic System :
Sociological dimensions of economic life; the impact of economic processes on the larger society; social aspects of division of labour and types of exchange; features of pre-industrial and industrial economic system; industrialisation and social change; social determinants of economic development.

9. Political System :
The nature of power-personal power, community power, power of the elite, class power, organisational power, power of the un-organised masses; authority and legitimacy; pressure groups and political parties; voting behaviour; modes of political participation-democratic and authoritarian forms.

10. Educational System :
Education and Culture; equality of educational opportunity; social aspects of mass education; problems of universalisation of primary education; role of community and state intervention in education; education as an instrument of social control and social change; education and modernisation.

11. Religion :
Origins of religious beliefs in pre-modern socieites; the sacred and the profane; social functions and dysfunctions of religion; monistic and pluralistic religion; organised and unorganised religions; semitism and antisemitism; religion, sect and cults; magic, religion and science.

12. Science & Technology :
Ethos of science; social responsibility of science; social control of science; social consequences of science and technology; technology and social change.

13. Social Movements :
Concepts of social movements; genesis of social movements; ideology and social movement; social movement and social change; types of social movements.

14. Social change and Development :
Continuity and change as fact and as value; theories of social change-Marx, Parsons and Sorokin; direted social change; social policy and social development.



Study of Indian Society

1. Historical Moorings of the Indian Society :
Traditional Hindu social organisation; socio-cultural dynymics through the ages; impact of Buddhism, Islam, and the West, factors in continuity and change.

2. Caste System :
Origin of the caste system; cultural and structural views about caste; mobility in caste; caste among Muslims and Christians; change and persistence of caste in modern India; issues of equality and social justice; views of Gandhi and Ambedkar on caste; caste on and Indian polity; Backward Classes Movement; Mandal Commission Report and issues of social backwardness and social justice; emergence of Dalit consciousness.

3. Class Structure :
Class structure in India, agrarian and industrial class structure; emergence ofmiddle class; emergence of classes among tribes; elite formation in India.

4. Marriage, Family and Kinship:
Marriage among different ethnic groups, its changing trends and its future; family-its structural and functional aspects-its changing forms; regional variations in kinship systems and its socio-cultural correlates; impact of legislation and socio-economic change on marriage and family; generation gap.

5. Agrarian Social Structure :
Peasant society and agrarian systems; land tenure systems-historical perspectives, social consequences of land reforms and green revolution; feudalism-semi-feudalism debates; emerging agrarian class structure; agrarian unrest.

6. Industry and Society :
Path of industrialisation, occupational diversification, trade unions and human relations; market economy and its social consequences; economic reforms liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.

7. Political Processes :
Working of the democratic political system in a traditional society; political parties and their social base; social structural origins of political elites and their orientations; regionalism, pluralism and national unity; decentralisation of power; panchayati raj and nagarpalikas and 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments.

8. Education :
Directive Principles of State Policy and primary education; education; educational inequality and change; education and social mobility; the role of community and state intervention in education; universalisation of primary education; Total Literacy Campaigns; educational problems of disadvantages groups.

9. Religion and Society :
Size, growth and regional distribution of different religious groups; educational levels of different groups; problems of religious minorities; communal tensions; secularism; conversions; religious fundamentalism.

10. Tribal Societies :
Distinctive features of tribal communities and their geographical spread; problems of tribal communities-land alienation, poverty, indebetedness, health and nutrition, education; tribal development efforts after independence; tribal policy-isolation, assimilation and integration; issues of tribal identity.

11. Population Dynamics :
Population size, growth, composition and distribution; components of population growth; birth rate, death rate and migration; determinants and consequences of population growth; issues of age at marriage, sex ratio, infant mortality rate; population policy and family welfare programmes.

12. Dimensions of Development :
Strategy and ideology of planning; poverty, indebtedness and bonded labour; strategies of rural development-poverty alleviation programmes; environment, housing, slums, and unemployment; programmes for urban development.

13. Social Change :
Endogenous and exogenous sources of change and resistance toc hange; processes of change-sanskritisation and modernisation; agents of change-mass media, education and communication; problems of change and modernisation; structural contradictions and breakdowns.

14. Social Movements :
Reform Movements : Arya Samaj, Satya Sadhak Samaj, Sri Narayanguru Dharma Paripalana Sabha, and Ram Krishna Mission.
Peasant movements-Kisan Sabha, Telengana, Naxalbari.
Backward Castes Movement : Self-respect Movement, backward castes mobilisation in North India.

15. Women and society :
Demographic profile of women; special problems-dowry, atrocities, discrimination; existing programmes for women and their impact. Situational analysis of children; child welfare programmes.

16. Social Problems :
Prostitution, AIDS, alcoholism, drug addiction, corruption

(Syllabus) Indian Psychology - Optional

(Syllabus) Indian Psychology - Optional

Psychology (Optional) Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

1. Introduction to psychology :
Concept and definition of psychology. Nature and Scope. Branches of psychology. Application of psychology to soceity and social problems.
2. Methods in Psychology :
Characteristics of psychological studies, Observation. Survey method, Clinical and case study method. Experimental method. Application of the method.
3. Quantitive Analysis :
Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Correlation. Levels of measurement. Reliability and validity. Application in test construction.
4. Physiological Psychology :
Structure of neuron, nerve impulses, synapse and neurotransmitters. Central and peripheral nervous system-structure and neural control of behaviour. Hemispheric specialisation. Endocrine system and hormonal control of behaviour. Application of hemispheric knowledge to diagnostic purposes.
5. Development of human behaviour :
Individual Differences : Heredity and environment. Life span developent. Role of early experience and mastering of developmental tasks. Sensitive or critical periods of development in human life cycle and its application.
6. Perception :
Preceptual processes. Perceputal organsiation. Perception of form, colour, depth and time. Perceptual readiness and constancy. Role of motivation, social and cultural factors in perception. Application of knowledge of perception to skill development (e.g. for certain jobs like that of driving, airline pilots etc.)
7. Learning :
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Modeling and observational learning. Transfer of training. Learing and motivation. Application of the above to the improvement of academic performance in education.
8. Memory :
Physiological basis of memory. Memory and forgetting. Measurement of memory (Recall, Recognition, Relearning). Short term and long term memory. Theories of forgetting (Decay and Interference theories and Repressive forgetting). Application of Mnemonic devices etc, to improving memory.
9. Cognition and Language :
Concept of formation. Nature and development of thinking. Language and thought and acquisition of language. Problem solving. Creative thinking and its applications.
10. Intelligence and Aptitude :
Definition and concept. Theories and models of Intelligence. Measurement of intelligence and aptitude. Exceptional intelligence. Mental retardation. Concepts of multiple, emotional and artificial intelligence and their application.
11. Motivation and Emotion :
Definition and concept of instinct, needs, drives and motives. Theories of motivation and their application (drive reduction theory, Maslow's motivational hierarchy). Social motivation: Achievement, power, affiliation motives and influence of early experiences. Physiological basis of emotion. Theories of emotion (James-Lange and Cannon-Brad theories, cognitive physiological theory).
12. Personality :
Concepts and Definition of personality. Sutdy of personality (Trait, type and eclectic approaches) Development of personality (Freud, Erikson, Biological and socio-cultural determinants). Measurement of Personality (Projective tests, pencil-paper tests). Application of personality profiles in fitting a person to a job.
13. Adjustment and Stress :
Concept and definition. Factors affecting adjustment (frustration and conflict). Sources of stress and reactions to stress. Coping with stress. Application of stress management techniques.
14. Social Behaviour :
Socio-cultural factors and behaviour. Development of attitudes, stereotypes and prejudice, Measurement of Attidutes (Thurstone, Likert attitude scale and Bogardus Social Distance scale). Strategies for reducing prejudice and changing atitude. Person perception, implicit personality theory and integrating impressions. Application of person perception to impression management.
15. Application of Psychology :
Health and mental health (yoga, meditation and relaxation therapies). Education (Programmed learning,. self instructional learning and learning styles). Community (self help through group cohesiveness and leadership). Industry (Assessment centre approach in selection, recruitment and training). Environment (man-nature interaction, personal space concept, pollution reduction) Information technology (Application to commercial, educational and health areas).

Psychology (Optional) Syllabus for Main Examination

Paper-I : Foundations of Psychology


1. Introduction : Psychology as a Science : Definitions and perspective. Psychology in relation to other social and natural sciences. Use of interdiciplinary approach.
2. Methods of Psychology : Characteristics and components of methods in psychology (induction, deduction and introspection). Observation, Survey, Laboratory and field experiments. Clinical and Case study. Experimental and quasi experimental methods.
3. Research methods and quantitative analysis : Major steps in psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing). Fundamental versus applied research. Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire and case study). Research Designs (Ex-post facto and experimental). Application of statistical techniques (t-test, one-way ANOVA correlation and regression and chi-square tests).
4. Development of Human Behaviour : The nature, origin and development. Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour. Influence of cultural factors and socialisation. Life span development-the critical periods and their handling, Mastery of the developmental tasks. Influence of child rearing practices and its impact on the growth and development of the individual, concept of national character.
5. Attention and perception : Attention - factors, influencing attention including set and characteristics of stimulus. Sensation-concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal detection and vigilance. Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception. Perceptual organisation-influence of past experiences, Perceptual defence-factors influencing. Space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness.
6. Learning : Concepts and theories of learning (Pavlov, Skimer and Piaget). The processes of extinction, discrimination and generalisation. Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional learning, concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement. Modelling and social learning.
7. Memory : Concepts and definition of memory and forgetting, 7+/-2 concept and clumking Encoding, storage and retrieval. Factors influencing retention and foregetting. Theories of forgetting (Repression, Decay and Interference theories). The concept of reminiscence.


8. Thinking and Problem Solving : Concept formation processes. Reasoning and problem solving. Creative thinking and fostering creativity. Information processing. Decision making and judgment.
9. Intelligence and Aptitude : Concept and definition of Intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence. Measurement of Intelligence and aptitude Concepts and measurement of emotional and multiple intelligence.
10. Motivation and Emotion : Definition and concepts. Theories and physiological basis of motivation and emotion. Measurement of motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion-their effects on behaviour.
11. Personality : Concept and definition of personality. Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal and developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches). Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test). The Indian approach to Personality. Training for personality development.
12. Language and Communication : Human language-properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition-predisposition, critical period hypothesis. Theories of language development (Skinner, Chomsky), Process and types of communication. Effective communication and training.
13. Attitudes, Values and Interests : Definitions, concepts of attitudes, values and interests. Components ofattitudes, values and interests. Formation and maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes, values and interests. Theories of attitudes, and attitudes changes, strategies for fostering values.
14. Recent Trends : Computer application in the Psychological laboratory and psychological testing. Artificial Intelligence. Psychocybernetics. Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states. Extrasensory perception. Intersensory perception Simulation studies.

Paper-II Psychology : Issues and Applications

1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Diference : The nature of individual differences. Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
2. Well being and Mental Disorders : Concept of health, positive health, well being and ill health. Mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophernia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders). Causal factors in mental disorders. Factors influencing positive health, well being, life style and quality of life.
3. Therapeutic Approaches : Psychody-namic therapies. Behaviour therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies. Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Reiki, Meditation) Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill.
4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour : Personnel selection and training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry. Training and human resource development. Theories of work motivation. Leadership and participatory management. Advertising and marketing.
5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field : Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process.Learning styles Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving memory and better academic achievement. Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and Career counselling. Use of Psychological tests in educational institutions.
6. Communty Psychology : Definition and concept of Community Psychology. Role of community psychologists in social change. Use of small groups in social action. Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change.
7. Rehabilitation Psychology : Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes-role of psychologists. Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Rehabiliation of HIV/.AIDS victims.

8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups : The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation and socially deprived. Social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups. Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development.
9. Psychological and the problem of social integration : The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices. Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices. Measures to achieve social integration.
10. Application of psychology in Information Technology and Mass media : The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists. Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media. Distance learning through IT and mass media. Entrepre neurship through e-commerce. Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media. Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
11. Application of Psychology in the field of Defence : The concept of Military psychology, Aviation psychology and Psychological warfare Role of Military psychologists in the defence. Selection, recruitment and training of personnel. Facilitating the process of adjustment of personnel to military life-Role of Counselling. Devising Psychological tests for defence personnel. Psychological disorders due to war. Human engineering in Defence.
12. Psychology and Economic development : Achievement motivation and economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior. Motivating and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic development. Women Entrepreneurs. Consumer rights and consumer courts.
13. Application of psychology to environment and related fields : Environmental psychology-effects of noise, pollution and crowding. Population psychology-psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density. Motivating for small family norms. Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
14. Other applications of psychology : Sports psychology-improving performance of sports, personnel, psychology and understanding of political behaviour. Voting behaviours. Psychology of corruption and strategies to deal with Psychology of terrorism.


(Toppers Talk) Ankur Garg, IAS topper

(Toppers Talk) Ankur Garg, IAS topper

Ankur Garg

A believer in divine blessing , dedicated to filial piety-these traits or qualities are not exactly associated with careerist modern bureaucrats enjoying the loaves and fishes of power . Yet, an element of surprise may be in store for you when you hear that IAS topper and a brilliant student Ankur Garg attributes his outstanding achievement to blessings of God and parental best wishes . A brilliant student all through, Ankur was pursuing his engineering studies in the premier institution IIT , Delhi and had two successive stints in internationally acclaimed institutes in Paris and Lausanne before graduating as an engineer . Even as offers of six digit salaries and perks commensurate with it started pouring in the young engineer opted for Civil Services only for the love of challenge and commitment entailed by the service . With another IAS topper  Ashutosh Jindal (D.M. /West) as his friend , philosopher and guide Ankur Garg is currenly undergoing probation and planning to bring about incremental qualitative changes in the administration . Ankur however makes no secret of his conviction that he has a lot to learn and a lot more to unlearn as an IAS probationer. For the benefit of young IAS aspirants in Tripura Ankur is prepared to offer any help in preparatory studies . In this exclusive interview he spoke his mind with a candour and warmth that bowls you over .

Que : Being a topper in the civil service examination is a fantastic achievement . How could you achieve this , I mean, what was the secret of your success?

(Syllabus) Political Science- Optional

(Syllabus) Political Science- Optional

Preliminary Examination of Civil Services Exam

1. Political Science :
Nature & scope of the discipline, relationship with allied disciplines like History, Economics, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology.
2. Meaning of Politics :
Approaches to the study of Politics.
3. Key Concepts :
State, Soceity, Sovereignty, Power, Citizenship, Nation, Global order and Imperialism.
4. Political Ideas :
Rights, Liberty, Equality, Justice, Rule of Law. Civil Soceity Swaraj, Revolution, Democratic Participation.
5. Democracy :
Meaning and Theories of Democracy, Electoral system, Forms of Representation & Participation, Political accountability.
6. Political Ideologies :
Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Marxism, Socialism, Fascism, Gandhism.
7. Party System and Political Process :
Therories of Party System, National and regional parties, Political Parties in the Third World. Patterns of coalition politics, interest and pressure groups.
8. Forms of Government :
Parliamentary and Presidential. Federal & unitary Modes of decentralisation.
9. Bureaucracy Concept :
Theories, Weber and critiques of Bureaucracy.
10. Theories of Development :
Meaning and various approaches. Concept and Theories of underdevelopment Debates in the Third World.
11. Social Movements :
Meaning, Theories & Forms, Role of Environmental Feminist Peasant & workers movements, Role of Non Government organisation.
12. Nationalism and Internationalism :
13. Major theories of International relations :
Realist Marxist, Systems & Decision making & Game theory.
14. State & the Global order :
Neo-Liberalism, globalisation, structural adjustment, regional economic integration, Nature and Impact of globalisation.

Indian Government and politics
1. Approaches to the study of Governments :
Comparative historical, legal institutional, political economy and political sociology, approaches.
2. Classification of Political systems :
Democratic and Authoritarian, characteristics of Political systems in the third world.
3. Typologies of constitutions : Basic features of these constitutions & governments : including U.K., USA. France, Germany, China, and South Africa.
4. Constitutional development :
in India during British Rule-A historical perspective.
5. Constituent Assembly :
philosophical and socio-economic dimensions. Salient features of the Indian Constitution.
6. Nature of Indian federalism :
Centre-state relations, legislative, administrative, financial and political; politics of regional move and National Integration.
7. Fundamental Rights :
Constitutional provisions and political dynamics. Judicial Interpretations and socio political realities; Fundamental Duties.
8. The Union Executive :
President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, Constitutional provisions & framework and political trends.
9. Parliament :
Powers and functions of the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha; Parliamentary Committees; Functioning of the Parliamentary system in India.
10. The Judiciary : The Supreme Court , Judicial Review Judicial Activism, Public Intrest Litigation; Judicial Reforms.
11. The State Executive :
Governor, Chief Minister and the Council of Ministers; Constitutional Provisions and Political trends.
12. Indian Party System :
Evolution and Contemporay trends; coalition government at the Centre and States, pressure groups in Indian politics.
13. The interaction of Government & Scientific & Technology business :
Previous and now their inter relationship and changing roles in Society, Elites, Role of Pressure groups class and voluntary associations in society.
14. Local Government & Politics :
Panchayti Raj and Municipal Government, structure power & functions. Political realities, significance of 73rd and 74th Amendements, role of women in Panchayats.
15. Bureaucracy and Development : Post-colonial India; its changing role in the context of liberatis after, bureauratic Accountability.
16. Challenges to Indian Democracy :

(Syllabus) Indian History - Optional

(Syllabus) Indian History - Optional 

History Syllabus for Preliminary Examination

1. Prehistoric cultures in India
2. Indus Civilization. Origins. The Mature Phase: extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures.Problems of decline.

(Syllabus) General Studies - Compulsory


(Syllabus) General Studies - Compulsory

Preliminary Examination of Civil Services Exam

General Studies

  • General Science.
  • Current events of national and international importance
  • History of India and Indian National Movement
  • Indian and World Geography
  • Indian Polity and Economy
  • General Mental Ability

    Questions on General Science will cover general appreciation and understanding of science including matters of everyday observation and experience, as may be expected of a well educated person who has not made a special study of any particular scientific discipline. In current events, knowledge of significant national and international events will be tested. In History of India, emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social, economic and political aspects. Questions on the Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and character of the nineteenth century resurgence, growth of nationalism and attainment of Independence. In Geography, emphasis will be on Geography of India. Questions on the Geography of India will relate to physical, social and economic Geography of the country, including the main features of Indian agricultural and natural resources. Questions on Indian Polity and Economy will test knowledge of the country’s political system and Constitution of India, Panchayati Raj, Social Systems and economic developments in India. On general mental ability, the candidates will be tested on reasoning and analytical abilities.


(Syllabus) Geography - Optional


(Syllabus) Geography- Optional 

Preliminary Examination of Civil Services Exam

Physical Geography

i) Geomorphology
Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale; Interior of the earth; Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting; Volcanoes; Earthquakes; Weathering; Landforms caused by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions.
ii) Climatology
Structure and composition of atmosphere; Temperature; Pressure belts and Wind systems; Clouds and rainfall types; Cyclones and anti-cyclones; Major climatic types.
iii) Oceanography
Ocean relief; Temperature; Salinity; Ocean deposits; Ocean currents, El Nino and La Nino; Waves and tides.
iv) Biogeography
Origin and types of soils; Major biomes of the world; Ecosystem and food chain; Environmental degradation and conservation.

Human Geography
i) Man and Environment Relationship
Growth and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism.
ii) Population
Races of mankind and tribes; growth and distribution of world population; migration; population problems of developed and developing countries.
iii) Economic Activities
Food gathering and hunting; pastoral herding; fishing and forestry; Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation; Mining, Power; Manufacturing -locational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries; Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.
iv) Settlements
Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements; Processes of urbanisation; morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities and mega-cities.

Geography of the World
i) Major Natural Regions : Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.
ii) Regional Geography of Developed Countries : Canada, U.S.A., Western Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
iii) Regional Geography of Developing Countries : S.E. Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.
iv) Regional Geography of South Asia.

Geography of India
i) Physical Setting
Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.
ii) Economic Base
Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.
iii) Population
Growth, distribution and density; demographic characteristics.
iv) Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.

Geographical Thought
i) Ancient Period : Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.
ii) Pre-Modern Period : Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.
iii) Modern Period : Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism; contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.
iv) Recent Period : Quantitive Revolution; Radicalism, Behaviouralism and Humanism.

Techniques of Geographical Analysis
i) Maps : Scale and types, uses.
ii) Diagrams : Types and uses
iii) Projections : Types, characteristics and uses.
iv) Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) : Aerial photographs and imagery, GIS.

Main Examination of Civil Services Exam

Principles of Geography

Physical Geography
i) Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; physical conditions of the earth’s interior; geosynclines; continental drift; isostasy; sea-floor spreading; plate tectonics; mountain building; volcanicity; earthquakes; concepts of geomorphic cycles; landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and karst cycle; groundwater; Applied Geomorphology.
ii) Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; heat budget of the earth; atmospheric circulation; planetary and local winds; monsoons and jet streams; air masses and fronts; temperate and tropical cyclones; types and distribution of precipitation; Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s classification of world climate; hydrological cycle; climatic change.
iii) Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; temperature and salinity of the oceans; ocean deposits; ocean currents and tides; marine resources–biotic, mineral and energy resources; coral reefs; sea-level changes.
iv) Biogeography : Genesis of soils; classification and distribution of soils; soil profile; soil erosion and conservation; factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; problems of deforestation and conservation measures; social forestry, agro-forestry.
v) Environmental Geography : Human ecological adaptations; transformation of nature by man; environmental degradation and conservawtin; ecosystems and their management; global ecological imbalances–problems of pollution, global warming, reduction in bio-diversity and depletion of forests.

Human Geography
i) Perspectives in Human Geography : A real differentiation; regional synthesis; dichotomy and dualism; environmentalism; quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; cultural regions of the world human and welfare approaches; cultural regions of the world; human development indicators.

ii) Economic Geography : World economic develpment–measurement and problems; world resources and their distribution; energy crisis; the limits to growth; world agriculture–typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; food and nutrition problems; famine–causes, effects and remedies; world industries–location patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
iii) Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; demographic atrributes; causes and consequencies of migration; concepts of over–, under– and optimum population; world population problems.
Types and patterns of rural settlements; hierarchy of urban settlements; concept of primate city and rank-size rule; functional classificatipn of towns; sphere of urban influence; rural-urban fringe; satellite town; problems of urbanisation.
iv) Regional Planning : Concept of a region; types of regions and methods of regionalisation; growth centres and growth poles; regional imbalances; environmental issues in regional planning; planning for sustainable development.
v) Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human Geography; Malthusian, Marxian and Demographic Transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; laws of international boundaries and frontiers.
Note : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

Geography of India

i) Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; structure and relief; drainage system and watersheds; physiographic regions; mechanism of Indian monsoons; tropical cyclones and western distrubances; floods and droughts; climatic regions; natural vegetation, soil types and their distributions.
ii) Resources : Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, and biotic resources, their distribution, utilisation and conservation; energy crisis.
iii) Agriculture : Infrastructure–irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; institutional factors–land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; agro-and social forestry; green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; significance of dry farming; livestock resources and white revolution; blue revolution; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones.
iv) Industry : Evolution of industries; locational factors of cotton, jute, iron and steel, fertiliser, paper, drugs and pharmaceutical, automobile and cottage indusries; industrial complexes and industrial regionalisaiton; new industrial policy; multinationals and liberalisation.
v) Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade, trade balance; free trade and export promotion zones; developments in communication technology and its impact on economy and society.

i) Cultural Setting : Racial and ethnic diversities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; role of langague, religion and tradition in the formation of cultural regions; growth, distribution and density of population; demographic attributes–sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio and longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra-regional and international) and associated problems, population problems and policies.
ii) Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; urban development; census definition of urban areas; morphology of Indian cities; functional classification of Indian cities; conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; slums and associated problems; town planning; problems of urbanisaiton.
iii) Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; integrated rural development programmes; panchayati raj and decentralised planning; command area development; watershed management; planning for backward area, desert drought-prone, hill and tribal area development; multi-level planning; geography and regional planning.
iv) Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; state reorganisation; regional consciousness and national integration; international boundary of India and related issues; disputes on sharing of water resources; India and geopolitics of the Indian Ocean.
v) Contemporary Issues : Environmental hazards–landslides, earthquakes, floods and droughts, epidemics; issues related to environmental pollution; changes in patterns of land use; principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; population explosion and food security; environmental degradation; problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; regional disparities in economic development; concept of sustainable growth and development.
Note : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

(Topper TIPS) How to become an IAS/IPS officer: PC Vinoj Kumar

(Topper TIPS) How to become an IAS/IPS officer: PC Vinoj Kumar

How to become an IAS/IPS officer By P C Vinoj Kumar

Remember 'Udaan', the teleserial, where a village belle aspires to be an IPS officer? The hugely popular soap was based on the real-life story of young IPS officer, Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya, who was portrayed on screen by her sister, actress Kavita Chaudhary. With role models like Kanchan and Kiran Bedi, the IPS has broken the gender barrier and is the ultimate dream for millions of across rural and urban India. But how do you go about realising your dream? What are the qualifications you need? Here's the low down on how to enter the services. 

(INFO) Interested in geology? Give the UPSC exam

(INFO) Interested in geology? Give the UPSC exam

Interested in geology? Give the UPSC exam

What: The Union Public Service Commission invites applications for the Geologists' Examination, 2005, for recruitment to the posts of Junior Geologists.

Important dates

~ The exam will be held by Union Public Service Commission in November. 

(Toppers Talk) I can make a difference, says IAS topper - A Ganesh Nadar

(Toppers Talk) I can make a difference, says IAS topper

I can make a difference, says IAS topper

A Ganesh Nadar in Tirunelveli | May 13, 2005 00:23 IST

Divisional Engineer (installation) of BSNL, Tirunelveli, N Sreenivasan is on top of the world.

His son topped the Indian Administrative Services entrance exams.

(TIPS) Tips to improve your UPSC Interview

(TIPS) Tips to improve your UPSC  Interview

Even though the interview carries 300 marks with no minimum qualifying marks, it is the deciding factor at many times of your being within the services or out of it and in the least matters in which service you get. However since the interview is so personal and variable it is most desirable to do very well in the written mains. But an Interview can make or break you so take your personality development rather seriously and make sure to attend some mock interviews at leading institutes.

Tips to improve your performance at the Interview

(INFO) Maximum No. of Attempts permitted in UPSC.


(INFO) Maximum No. of Attempts permitted in UPSC.

A maximum of 4 attempts is permitted to every candidate and 7 to those belonging to Other Backward Classes.

There is no restriction on the number of attempts in the case of SC/ST candidates.

All this provided you are still under the age limit.

Also it is wiser to be mentally ready for several attempts as cracking the Civil Services Exams is a tough nut to crack the first time around; and if you do qualify you may want to attempt again to improve your ranking and therefore your service allotment.

(FUN) IAS i.e. UPSC Exam 1998 Interview Questions and Answers

(FUN) IAS i.e. UPSC Exam 1998 Interview Question and Answers

*IAS i.e. UPSC Exam 1998 Interview Question and there Answer given by
.........oh sorry!! IAS Officers now*

Q. How can you drop a raw egg onto a concrete floor without cracking it?
A. Concrete floors are very hard to crack! (UPSC Topper)

Q. If it took eight men ten hours to build a wall, how long would it take
four men to build it?
A. No time at all it is already built. (UPSC 23 Rank Opted for IFS)




On this day, Buddhists celebrate the commemoration of the birth of Gautama
Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, thought to have lived in India from 563 B.C. to
483 B.C. Actually, the Buddhist tradition that celebrates his birthday on April
8 originally placed his birth in the 11th century B.C., and it was not until the
modern era that scholars determined that he was more likely born in the sixth
century B.C., and possibly in May rather than April.According to the Tripitaka,
which is recognized by scholars as the earliest existing record of the Buddha's
life and discourses, Gautama Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha, the son of
the king of the Sakya people. The kingdom of the Sakyas was situated on the
borders of present-day Nepal and India. Siddhartha's family was of the Gautama
clan. His mother, Queen Mahamaya, gave birth to him in the park of Lumbini, in
what is now southern Nepal. A pillar placed there in commemoration of the event
by an Indian emperor in the third century B.C. still stands.At his birth, it was
predicted that the prince would either become a great world monarch or a
Buddha--a supremely enlightened teacher. The Brahmans told his father, King
Suddhodana, that Siddhartha would become a ruler if he were kept isolated from
the outside world. The king took pains to shelter his son from misery and
anything else that might influence him toward the religious life. Siddhartha was
brought up in great luxury, and he married and fathered a son. At age 29, he
decided to see more of the world and began excursions off the palace grounds in
his chariot. In successive trips, he saw an old man, a sick man, and a corpse,
and since he had been protected from the miseries of aging, sickness, and death,
his charioteer had to explain what they were. Finally, Siddhartha saw a monk,
and, impressed with the man's peaceful demeanor, he decided to go into the world
to discover how the man could be so serene in the midst of such
suffering.Siddhartha secretly left the palace and became a wandering ascetic. He
traveled south, where the centers of learning were, and studied meditation under
the teachers Alara Kalama and Udraka Ramaputra. He soon mastered their systems,
reaching high states of mystical realization, but was unsatisfied and went out
again in search of nirvana, the highest level of enlightenment. For nearly six
years, he undertook fasting and other austerities, but these techniques proved
ineffectual and he abandoned them. After regaining his strength, he seated
himself under a pipal tree at what is now Bodh Gaya in west-central India and
promised not to rise until he had attained the supreme enlightenment. After
fighting off Mara, an evil spirit who tempted him with worldly comforts and
desires, Siddhartha reached enlightenment, becoming a Buddha at the age of
35.The Gautama Buddha then traveled to the deer park near Benares, India, where
he gave his first sermon and outlined the basic doctrines of Buddhism. According
to Buddhism, there are "four noble truths":  (1) existence is suffering; (2)
this suffering is caused by human craving; (3) there is a cessation of the
suffering, which is nirvana; and (4) nirvana can be achieved, in this or future
lives, though the "eightfold path" of right views, right resolve, right speech,
right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right
concentration.For the rest of his life, the Buddha taught and gathered disciples
to his sangha, or community of monks. He died at age 80, telling his monks to
continue working for their spiritual liberation by following his teachings.
Buddhism eventually spread from India to Central and Southeast Asia, China,
Korea, Japan, and, in the 20th century, to the West. Today, there are an
estimated 350 million people in 100 nations who adhere to Buddhist beliefs and

(INFO) List of famous Indians

(INFO) List of famous Indians

Note: use shift+click to open links.

Armed forces


Business and Industry

See also: Influential businessmen of India



Fashion, modelling and beauty

For a list of women who have won the Miss India titles see : Miss India
For a list of Indian Models, see the Category
  • Dino Morea, model and actor
  • John Abraham, model and actor
  • Madhu Sapre
  • Manish Malhotra, designer
  • Milind Soman, model and actor
  • Nafisa Joseph, model and VJ
  • Ritu Beri, designer
  • Rohit Bal, designer


See also: Indian writing in English

Mass Media



See also: Dadasaheb Phalke Award winners


(NEWS) Indian School of Business (ISB) Student snaps 1crore pay package.

Indian School of Business (ISB) Student snaps 1crore pay package.

Hyderbad/New Delhi: A student of the Indian School of Business (ISB) in Hyderabad has been offered an annual salary of Rs 1 crore --- the highest ever at any business school in India.

An Indian company offered the $233,800-salary, announced ISB dean Ram Mohan Rao. The highest domestic salary offered is Rs 33.3 lakh and the average Indian salary works out to Rs 11.77 lakh.

An IIM Calcutta graduate won a pay pack of Rs 99 lakh per annum five years ago. That record now stands broken.

The placements at ISB mean that the Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) have got competition in the race to secure big pay packets for graduates.

Top corporates are now willing to pay ISB students salaries which are as good as that offered to IIM graduates and even better.

ISB officials are tightlipped about the pay packets and salary details are under wraps.

At least ISB five students have reportedly been offered an annual salary of Rs 88 lakh and 142 companies are competing to hire the 345 ISB gradutes this year. A formal announcement about placements will be made on Thursday.

"This year, with the economy doing very well, our students have drawn very good salaries. We're excited about this and so are the students," said Bhuvana Ramalingam, Corporate Communications Head at ISB.

Most ISB students have work experience of some years and this helps them in earning good salaries.

The placement season at IIMs got over recently and saw pay packets touching a high when London-based Barclays offered Rs 84 lakh to IIM Bangalore graduate Gaurav Agarwal. IIM-Ahmedabad saw salaries during placements increase to Rs 10.6 lakh per annum.


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(INTERVIEW) Dr Prabha Ganurkar, Civil Services Coaching Maharashtra

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When and why was this institute set up?
This institute was founded in 1976 to boost the chances of the Maharashtrian students to get in to the civil Services. Normally it is the UP and Bihar students who very actively participate in the Civil Services exams and get through. If you go to JNU 90 per cent students are preparing for the Civil Services. Even their syllabus is based on the pattern of the UPSC. But in Maharashtra not many try for the Civil Services mainly because they don

A Marvelous Patriotic Video: Vande-Mataram .....

A Marvelous Patriotic Video .....

" Vande-Mataram "

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(TOPPER) Tips from Srinivasan Nagarajan : UPSC Topper 2005

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SUCCESS STORY: Srinivasan Nagarajan



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